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ARTHOSCOPY

Knee arthroscopic surgery is a procedure performed through small incisions in the skin to repair injuries to tissues such as ligaments, cartilage, or bone within the knee joint area. The surgery is conducted with the aid of an arthroscope, which is a very small instrument guided by a lighted scope attached to a television monitor. Other instruments are inserted through three incisions around the knee. Arthroscopic surgeries range from minor procedures such as flushing or smoothing out bone surfaces or tissue fragments (lavage and debridement) associated with osteoarthritis, to the realignment of a dislocated knee and ligament grafting surgeries. The range of surgeries represents very different procedures, risks, and aftercare requirements.


Treatment of these acute injuries include such common surgeries as:

  • Repairs of a torn ligament or reconstruction of the ligament.
  • ACL Reconstruction
  • PCL Reconstruction
  • Meniscal repair
  • Arthroscopic bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation

A Bankart lesion is a shoulder injury. It occurs when there is a tear in the labrum. This is the fibrous cartilage that helps hold the shoulder joint in place. Surgery can repair this injury. This surgery may be done through a few small incisions. This is called arthroscopic surgery.
The labrum is a thick band of cartilage attached to the glenoid. It lines the shoulder socket and helps keep the ball of the humorous in place. This arthroscopic procedure is used to repair a detached labrum. The labrum and glenohumeral ligament are reattached to the glenoid. Surgical anchors or sutures are used.

INTACT ACL AND PCL

ACL TEAR

ACL RECONSTRUCTION

Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) is the soft tissue inside the knee joint that connects the thigh bone(femur) and the leg bone (tibia) and gives stability to the knee joint while walking, running and turning sideways.
  • By forceful hyperextension of knee or by a direct blow over distal end of femur with the knee flexed
  • Sports activities
  • Road traffic accidents
  • Twisting injuries to the knee

IMMEDIATE

  • Not able to walk immediately with full support on the leg.
  • Painful swelling over knee.

LATE

  • Instability when planting the foot of the injured extremity and pivoting, causing the knee to buckle and give way
  • Frequent giving away of the knee while descending stairs and turning sideways suddenly
  • Pain and swelling in the knee on and off
  • Clicks occasionally

HOW TO TREAT?

  • Partial tear- can be treated conservatively by physiotherapy
  • Complete tear - your torn ligament needs to be replaced with a new ligament
WHAT IF NOT TREATED?
  • Exposes your knee joint to early degenerative osteo arthritis
  • Instability and frequent falls may result in damage to articular cartilage and meniscus of knee
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the soft tissue in your knee joint running from the thigh bone (femur) to the leg bone (tibia) which along with ACL helps in controlling the rotational stability of the knee during twisting and turning activities.

  • Isolated PCL injury – When there is a complete tear with instability and anterior knee pain, PCL needs to be replaced
  • When combined with other ligament injuries - Replacement of PCL along with other ligament surgeries is required.
  • Most commonly PCL injury is associated with Postero Lateral Corner(PLC) injury which requires open PLC reconstruction with Arthroscopy PCL reconstruction.

  • Shock absorbing action
  • Articular cartilage protection
  • Cushioning effect

  • Twisting injury to knee
  • Degeneration due to old age

  • Pain in the knee
  • Locking episodes
  • Clicks in the knee
  • Difficulty in squatting and sitting cross legged

Torn part can be either repaired or removed depending on the site of tear and duration and it is decided during surgery